Technical introduction
A-Metal's professional approach to cladding fixing anchor design has led to the development of a compressive range of standard fixing that will cover most requirements. The catalogue shows the various types with their physical and mechanical characteristics. For situations where a special fixing is required, A-Metal's design department will develop suitable solutions. Whether it be thin cladding Marble Granite, or heavier section Limestone or Sandstone or other cladding material, A-Metal can provide a fixing to suit.

Basic Principles
There are 3 different functions of Fixing used for securing cladding panels, namely:

Restraint   Support   Combined Support
   and Restraint

The symbols shown are used throughout this catalogue to assist the reader in identifying the Function of Fixing anchors shown

The design of fixings is based upon guidance from UK standards, BS 90 structural use of steelwork in building and related standard and BS 29 design and installation of natural stone cladding and lining. since a-Metal provide fixings worldwide, certain countries may have different standards and where possible these will be taken in account when evaluating a fixing solution, Wind loading for example can be significantly higher in certain areas and may alter significantly a fixing requirement.sesmic loading too may become an important factor. A-Metal's computerized designs easily account for these variations as long as they are identified at the design stage.

Where appropriate fixing are tested by UK NAMMAS Accredited independent laboratories. Copies may be obtained subject to consent.

When designing a fixing system the following should be considered:

Diagram Showing Basic Fixing applied Forces

The following is a summary of British Standards relating to Fixing materials and design codes.

BS 648   Schedule of weighs of building materials
BS 970: Part 1:1991   Wrought steels for mechanical and allied engineering purpose: General inspection and testing procedures and specific requirements for carbon, carbon manganese, alloy and stainless steels.
BS 1210: 1963   Specification for wood screws.
BS 1243: 1978   Specification for metal ties for cavity wall construction.
BS 1449:Part2:1983   Steel plate, sheet and strip: Specification for stainless and heat-resisting steel plate, sheet and strip.
BS 1501:Part3:1990   Steels for pressure purposes: plates: Specification for corrosion and heat-resisting steels.
BS 1502: 1982   Steels for fired and unfired pressure vessels: sections and bars.
BS 1554: 1990   Specification for stainless and heat-resisting steel round wire.
BS 2901:Part2:1990   Filler rods and wires for gas-shielded arc welding: Specification for stainless steels.
BS 2926: 1984   Specification for chromium and chromium-nickel steel electrodes for manual metal arc welding.
BS 3100:1991   Specification for steel castings for general engineering purposes.
BS 3111:Part2:1979   Steel for cold forged fasteners and similar components: Stainless steel.
BS 3146:Part2:1984   Investment castings in metal: Corrosion and heat resisting steels, nickel and cobalt base alloys.
BS 5628:Part3:1985   Code of practice for use of masonry: Materials and components, design and workmanship
BS 5950   Structural use of steelwork in building
BS 5977:Part2:1983   Lintels: specification for prefabricated lintels.
BS 6105:1981   Specification for corrosion-resistant stainless steel fasteners.
BS 6178:Part1:1990   Joist hangers: Specification for joist hangers for building into masonry walls of domestics buildings
BS 6180:1982   Code of practice for protective barriers in and about buildings
BS 6399:Part1   Loading for buildings-code of practice for dead and imposed loads
BS 6744:1986   Specification for austenitic stainless steel bars for the reinforcement of concrete
BS 7475:1991   Specification for fusion welding of austenitic stainless steels
BS 8298:1989   Code of practice for design and installation of natural stone cladding and lining.

The following is a summary of British Standards relating to Fixing materials and design codes:


The following systems shown as Systems 1 and 2 indicate the two fundamental systems of stone panel anchorage commonly used. The architectural requirements for joints sizes and type of backing structure will dictate generally which system is adopted.